Reset password flow

My email account is a skeleton key to anything online I’ve signed up for. If I forget a password, I can reset it. Implementing this feature for a web app takes just a few steps.

When users enter an incorrect password, I prompt them to reset it.

incorrect password warning

Clicking the reset link calls a “forgot password” back-end service.

$(document).on("click",".reset-pw-cta", function(){
	var email = $(this).attr("data");
	$.ajax({
		url:"/service-layer/user-service.php?method=forgotPw&email="+email,
		complete:function(response){
			console.log(response.responseText)
			window.showStatusMessage("A password reset email as been sent to " + email);
		}
	})
});

A token is created in our ‘password recovery’ database table. That token is related back to an account record.

password recovery database table

As a security practice, recovery tokens are deleted nightly by a cron job.

An email is then sent containing a “reset password” link embedded with the token. AWS SES and PHPMailer is used to send that message.

function forgotPw(){
	$email = $this->email;
	$row = $this->row;
	$number_of_rows = $this->number_of_rows;
	$conn = $this->connection;
	if($number_of_rows > 0){
		$this->emailFound = 1;
		$userid = $row['ID'];
		$this->userid = $userid;

		//create reset token
		$timestamp = time();
		$expire_date = time() + 24*60*60;
		$token_key = md5($timestamp.md5($email));
		$statement = $conn->prepare("INSERT INTO `passwordrecovery` (userid, token, expire_date) VALUES (:userid, :token, :expire_date)");
		$statement->bindParam(':userid', $userid);
		$statement->bindParam(':token', $token_key);
		$statement->bindParam(':expire_date', $expire_date);
		$statement->execute();

		//send email via amazon ses
		include 'send-email-service.php';	
		$SendEmailService = new SendEmailService();

		$reset_url = 'https://www.bjjtracker.com/reset-pw.php?token='.$token_key;
	        $subject = 'Reset your password.';
	        $body    = 'Click here to reset your password: <a href="'.$reset_url.'">'. $reset_url .'</a>';
	        $altBody = 'Click here to reset your password: ' . $reset_url;
	        $this->status = $SendEmailService -> sendEmail($subject, $body, $altBody, $email);


	}else{
		$this->emailFound = 0;
	}
}

That link navigates to a page with a “reset password” form.

reset password form

Upon submission the new password and embedded token are passed along to the server.

$(document).ready(function() {
    $(".reset-button").click(function(){
      var newPassword = $(".password-reset-input").val();
      if(newPassword.length < 1){
        var notifications = new UINotifications();
        notifications.showStatusMessage("Please don't leave that blank :( ");
        return;
      }
      var data = $(".resetpw-form").serialize();
      $.ajax({
        url: "/service-layer/user-service.php?method=resetPw&token=<?php echo $_GET['token']; ?>",
        method: "POST",
        data: data,
        complete: function(response){
          // console.log(response);
          window.location = "/";
        }
      });
    });
    $("input").keypress(function(e) {
      if(e.which == 13) {
        e.preventDefault();
          $(".reset-button").click();
      }
  });
  

});

The correct recovery record is selected by using the token value. That provides the user ID of the account that we want to update. The token should be deleted once the database is updated.

function resetPw(){
	$conn = $this->connection;
	$token = $_GET['token'];
	$password = $_POST['password'];
	$passwordHash = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT);
	$statement = $conn->prepare("SELECT * FROM `passwordrecovery` where token = ?");
	$statement->execute(array($token));
	$row = $statement->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
	$userid = $row['userid'];

	$update_statement = $conn->prepare("UPDATE `users` SET password = ? where ID = ?");
	$update_statement->execute(array($passwordHash, $userid));

	$delete_statement = $conn->prepare("DELETE FROM `passwordrecovery` where token = ?");
	$delete_statement->execute(array($token));
}

This is a secure and user-friendly workflow to allow users to reset their passwords.

Custom UI notifications

UI feedback alerts

Showing brief notifications to website visitors is an important UI/UX component. They’re useful for providing feedback. They can communicate success, failure, or warnings.

Don Norman (The Design of Everyday Things) mentions that “Feedback is essential, but not when it gets in the way of other things, including a calm and relaxing environment” and goes on to say “Feedback is essential, but it has to be done correctly”.

A common use-case is data validation. Specifically, when logging in or signing up. If the user enters an invalid email address, or wrong login credentials, we need to let them know. The built in browser alert() is clunky and unsophisticated. Plugins are bloated and over-engineered. I wrote some basic HTML, CSS, and JavaScript that gets the job done and looks great.

My code provides two versions of the alert. The first is a basic sticky bar that fades in and out at the top of the page.

example of alert message for an invalid email address

The other flashes in the middle of the screen. I call it “in-your-face” alerts and reserve them for positive success messages.

example of a flashing UI alert to provide positive feedback to users

The CSS adds styles for both versions. Both utilize ‘position: fixed’ to stay in a set location on the page. The “in-your-face” example uses a pulse animation to achieve its effect.

<!-- UI-notifications.css -->
<style>
body{
  margin: 0px;
}
.status-message{
  display: none;
  color: white;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 16px;
  padding: 8px;
  border-top: 1px solid white;
  border-bottom: 1px solid white;
  position: fixed;
  width: 100%;
  top: 0px;
  padding: 28px 8px;
  background-color: #b12650;
  z-index: 1000;
}
.status-message-inner{
  margin: 0px;
}

.status-message-close{
  cursor: pointer;
  position: fixed;
  right: 10px;
}
.in-your-face{
  display: none;
  position: fixed;
  top: 45%;
  width: 100%;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 48px;
  color: white;
  z-index: 2;
}
.in-your-face-inner{
    background: #005b96;
    width: 80%;
    margin: 0 auto;
    opacity: .85;
    padding: 10px;
}
@keyframes pulse{
  50%  {transform: scale(1.2);}

}
.pulse{
  animation: pulse 0.5s ease-in infinite;
}
</style>
<!-- end UI-notifications.css -->

The javascript relies on jQuery as a dependency. It is written as a class, with a constructor and two methods. Each method takes message text as a parameter.

class UINotifications {
	constructor() {
		window.jQuery || document.write('<script src="js/vendor/jquery-1.11.2.min.js"><\/script>');
		var statusMessageHtml = '<div class="status-message"><p class="status-message-inner"><span class="status-message-text">Welcome to My App</span><span class="status-message-close">X</span></p></div>';
		var inYourFaceHtml = '<div class="in-your-face pulse"><p class="in-your-face-inner"><span class="in-your-face-text">Great Job!</span></p></div>';

		$(document).on("click", ".status-message-close", function(){
			$(".status-message").fadeOut();
		});

		this.statusMessage = $("<div/>").html(statusMessageHtml);
		this.inYourFace = $("<div/>").html(inYourFaceHtml);
		
		$('body').prepend(this.inYourFace);
		$('body').prepend(this.statusMessage);

	}

 	showStatusMessage(message){
 		var notifications = this;
	  	var message = message || "Default Message"
	  	var statusMessageTimeout;
	  	
		if(notifications.statusMessage.find(".status-message").is(':visible')){
	     clearTimeout(statusMessageTimeout);
	    }

		notifications.statusMessage.find(".status-message .status-message-text").html(message);
		notifications.statusMessage.find(".status-message").fadeIn();
		
	    statusMessageTimeout = setTimeout(function(){
	       notifications.statusMessage.find(".status-message").fadeOut(); 
	    }, 5000)
		
	}
	showInYourFace(message, callback){
		var notifications = this;
		var inYourFaceTimeout;
		var inYourFaceRandoms = ["Good work!", "Hard work!", "Nice job!", "Hustle!"]

		var message = message || inYourFaceRandoms[Math.floor(Math.random()*inYourFaceRandoms.length)];;
		var callback = callback || function(){};

		if(notifications.inYourFace.find(".in-your-face").is(':visible')){
	     clearTimeout(inYourFaceTimeout);
	    }

		notifications.inYourFace.find(".in-your-face .in-your-face-text").html(message);
		notifications.inYourFace.find(".in-your-face").show();
		
	    inYourFaceTimeout = setTimeout(function(){
	       notifications.inYourFace.find(".in-your-face").fadeOut(function(){
	       	callback();
	       }); 

	    }, 1000)
	}
}

This is a simple and lightweight solution to showing web app visitors informative alerts without using a plugin. Please, checkout the code and use it in your next project.

You can find the code on GitHub.

WordPress homepage cards with lazy load images

wordpress homepage design

I write online a lot. Adding articles to this blog serves to build a catalog of technical solutions for future reference. I also publish to the SplitWit blog, writing about A/B testing. Updating the homepages of these sites has improved user experience and SEO for each. The new design displays the most recent articles as clickable cards, rather than listing the entire text of each one. The changes for this were added to index.php file, in the child-theme folder. The theme’s original code already used a While() loop to iterate through the post records. My modification removed the article content, and only kept the title and image:

<div class="doc-item-wrap">
	<?php
	while ( have_posts() ) {
		the_post();
		echo "<div class='doc-item'><a href='". get_the_permalink() ."'><img class='lazy' data-src='".get_the_post_thumbnail_url()."'><h2>" . get_the_title() . "</h2></a></div>";
	} ?>
</div> <!-- doc-item-wrap -->

I used custom CSS, leveraging Flexbox, to style and position the cards:

.doc-item-wrap{
    display: flex;
    flex-wrap: wrap;
    justify-content: center;
}
.doc-item{
    width: 30%;
    padding: 20px;
    border: 3px solid #f0503a;
    margin: 15px;
    background: black;
    flex-grow: 1;
    text-align: center;
}
.doc-item:hover{
    background-color: #34495e;
}
.doc-item p{
    margin: 0px;
    line-height: 40px;
    color: white;
}
.doc-item img{
    display: block;
    margin: 0 auto;
}
.doc-item h2{
    font-size: 22px;
    color: white;

}
@media(max-width: 1000px){
	.doc-item{
		width: 45%
	}
}
@media(max-width: 700px){
	.doc-item{
		width: 100%
	}
}

The media queries adjust the size of the cards (and how many are in a row), based on screen size.

Lazy loaded images

Image content can often be the biggest drag to site speed. Lazy loading media defers rendering until it is needed. Since this blog’s homepage has an image for each post, this was essential.

While iterating through post records the image URL is assigned to a custom data-src attribute on the image tag, leaving the normal src blank. This assures the image is not immediately retrieved nor loaded. I wrote a JavaScript function to lazy load the images, relying on the IntersectionObserver API. The card’s image does not load until a user scrolls it into view. This improves the speed of the page, which has a positive effect on SEO and UX.

The code creates a IntersectionObserver object.  It observes each of the image elements, checking to see if they are within the browser viewport. Once the image elements come into view, it takes the image URL from the data-src attribute, and assigns it to the tag’s src – causing the image to load.

document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
  var lazyImages = [].slice.call(document.querySelectorAll("img.lazy"));
  if ("IntersectionObserver" in window) {
    let lazyImageObserver = new IntersectionObserver(function(entries, observer) {
      entries.forEach(function(entry) {
        if (entry.isIntersecting) {
          let lazyImage = entry.target;
          lazyImage.src = lazyImage.dataset.src;
          // lazyImage.srcset = lazyImage.dataset.srcset;
          lazyImage.classList.remove("lazy");
          lazyImageObserver.unobserve(lazyImage);
        }
      });
    });

    lazyImages.forEach(function(lazyImage) {
      lazyImageObserver.observe(lazyImage);
    });
  } 
});

 

Original JS code referenced from this article: Lazy-loading images 

You can also use this same method for lazy loading videos and backgrounds.

Look and feel of the design

Card layout design is the best way to arrange blog content. It gives visitors a visual overview of what’s available. It also stops the homepage from duplicating content that’s already available on the individual post pages.

You can see this pattern throughout the digital world. Card layout translates well across screen sizes and devices. Since I put much effort into writing, making it organized was a priority. This implementation can be extended to add additional content (such as date, description, etc.) and features (share links, animations, expandability). And, it fits nicely with what WordPress already provides.