Identify Unused Image Files in a Code Project

Searching for image files

I wrote a script to list (and optionally delete) the image files it finds in a directory that are not referenced any where.  I specified a single sub-directory at a time. If you do the entire project it may take long to complete.




# Check for -d (delete) flag
if [[ $1 == "-d" ]]; then

# Find all image files
find $IMAGE_DIR -type f \( -iname \*.png -o -iname \*.jpg -o -iname \*.jpeg -o -iname \*.gif -o -iname \*.webp -o -iname \*.svg -o -iname \*.ico \) | while read img_file; do
    # Extract the basename of the image file
    img_basename=$(basename "$img_file")
    # Search for it in the project, excluding .zip files and .git directories
    result=$(grep -ril --exclude=*.zip --exclude-dir=.git "$img_basename" "$PROJECT_DIR")
    # If not found, print it or delete it based on flag
    if [ -z "$result" ]; then
        echo "Unused image: $img_file"
        if $DELETE_FLAG; then
            rm "$img_file"
            echo "Deleted: $img_file"

Be sure to edit the code to include the image file types that you want to target. Make the file executable before trying to use it:

chmod +x

Run the script (without deletion)


To run the script with the delete functionality:

./ -d

Find unused images in a project

In an early version, my script was leaving behind files that appeared to be completely unreferenced in the code base (I checked manually by searching the project via IDE). To troubleshoot, I ran grep from the command line:

grep -ril "experienceLogo2.png" "$PWD"

It turned out that those files were referenced in a zip file and in git objects (and therefore considered not unused). I fixed this bug by adding the flags –exclude=*.zip –exclude-dir=.git to my grep command in

grep to find a file reference within a directory
I had lots of unused stock images and old designs that felt good to purge. Now with generative image AI, I know I could create assets easily as I need them in the future.

I used this script during a project to upgrade my website to use next generation file formats. If you liked this post, read another one where I discuss managing graphic assets for a web project.


Identify any unused files in a code project

This code can be changed to search for any kind of file. Here’s an updated version I used to see if some old Bootstrap files were being used any where:




# Check for -d (delete) flag
if [[ $1 == "-d" ]]; then

# Find all image files
# find $FILE_DIR -type f \( -iname \*.png -o -iname \*.jpg -o -iname \*.jpeg -o -iname \*.gif -o -iname \*.webp -o -iname \*.svg -o -iname \*.ico \) | while read my_file; do
find $FILE_DIR -type f \( -iname \*.css -o -iname \*.js \) | while read my_file; do
    # Extract the basename of the image file
    file_basename=$(basename "$my_file")
    # Search for it in the project, excluding .zip files and .git directories and .xml directories
    result=$(grep -ril --exclude=*.zip --exclude-dir=.git --exclude=*.xml "$file_basename" "$PROJECT_DIR")
    # If not found, print it or delete it based on flag
    if [ -z "$result" ]; then
        echo "Unused file: $my_file"
        if $DELETE_FLAG; then
            rm "$my_file"
            echo "Deleted: $my_file"

This didn’t work perfectly. I had to add an exclusion condition for .xml files because my WordPress blog archive files were being highlighted in the search. (EOD, I ended up zipping the few .xml archive files anyway. I also keep them on an S3 bucket, but I enjoy redundancy.)

The file name “bootstrap.css” was being found in its own file.

Bootstrap source code

This, at least, gave me enough confidence to just delete the files manually. I can’t call this a perfect tool (and I don’t think it would scale well), but it is a utility for a practical use-case.

I saw other examples of it acting funny. For instance, I had an old stock photo file named ‘5.jpg’. It was coming up as being used in the project because, for some reason, that string was found in another image file – ‘jimmy.webp’.

using grep to search image file names

Creativity and Design for Programmers


As programmers, we are creators and innovators. Design should mean more to us than just software architecture and “API design.” Graphic design, UI and user experience play a role in what we deliver as digital creators

  • The importance of typography cannot be understated in design.
      • Readability – cursive and serifs for headings; san-serif for body text
  • Choosing font pairs is essential to ensure consistency and visual appeal.

When I first started doing freelance work (circa 2007) I was mostly a programmer, and had a hard learning curve for design. I made the mistake of randomly selecting unrelated fonts and slapping them together. One time, I designed ugly (in retrospect; at the time, I thought they were amazing) looking business cards for myself. I order 10,000 of them! I remember I ordered them from after watching a YouTube video recommendation. business cards from 2008 business cards from 2008

I got through maybe one thousand of them, ever. Until recently, I still had boxes of them stored in my parent’s basement, back in the Bronx. I keep a few in my archives just for memories. homepage
A subtle background pattern
  • Using an image as a background, especially if it’s blurred or darkened and turned black & white, can create a stunning visual effect.
  • Using a white font with a semi-transparent black layer on top of the image background can make the text pop out and increase readability.
    • I can achieve this effect using the GIMP. Once I have an image open, I add a new layer on top. I fill that layer all black. Finally, I lower the opacity of that layer to about 50%.  You can see examples of this on
    • I can use CSS to add a transparent shadow to a div that has a background image (that is what I use on my portfolio page):
	.semi-trans-bg::before {
	  content: "";
	  position: absolute;
	  top: 0;
	  right: 0;
	  bottom: 0;
	  left: 0;
	  background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5); /* Black with 50% opacity */
	.semi-trans-bg p{
	   z-index: 1;
	   position: relative;

SplitWit homepage design

  • For website design, the navigation often incorporates a hamburger menu for a cleaner look.
  • When considering a logo, decide between using just text or incorporating an image for branding. Consider the “Anthony Pace” logo on this website.
    • When design my own textual logo, the techniques I found most useful: kearning (letter spacing), drop shadows, and lighting effects.
    • Using apps such as Canva makes it fun and easy. Is AI and automatic tooling replacing designers?

The logo that I use for this website (check the top-left menu, or my homepage’s hero space) has went through numerous iterations. I built it using the GIMP (which has been my tool of choice for over twenty years. I first started using it around 2002- and that’s when I learned that opacity is the opposite of transparency).


#todo: Add GIMP tutorials for techniques I often use. ie, Images with Text on top; The importance of padding.

An important typography technique I leveraged was kearning. I adjusted the spacing between the letters in my last name “PACE” to make it wider, and I used all capital letters. This gave it a sturdy feeling (something which I meant to convey).  This formed a strong base for “Anthony” to balance on top of.

Each letter has a subtle drop-shadow, just barely noticeable, giving a *pop*. And the text center (check the “h” in “Anthony”) has a lighting effect (in GIMP, “Filters” -> “Light and Shadow” -> “Lighting effects…”) that draws attention.

Originally, the text logo I use today (circa 2023) was displayed next to a circled “A” (that I now use as the site’s favicon). Separating those two elements was a simplification that added a feeling of professionalism to my brand.

This same concept was stylized into many other renditions (see below). The fonts I used: Pacifico, Exo, Roboto. You can find artifacts of this throughout




Ant Pace Weblog
A legacy logo design from this website
mobile software and marketing
A design asset for my freelance business
Web Design and Development
I enjoy the outer space theme throughout
Anthony Pace Cover Art
This was originally created in the GIMP and used stock imagery
Anthony Pace Blog Logo
At first, I wasn’t sure if my blog and main site should have different brand identities

To taste more of my design sense, check out my portfolio.

Libraries & other resources: FontAwesome, Bootstrap CSS,

CLI design tools for programmers

The command line is a place where engineering and design blend like peanut butter and chocolate.

  1. Bulk converting images to a new format
  2. Identify unused image files in a code project
  3. Batch renaming and resizing image files


In another post, I highlighted solutions I used to manage a large amount of content for a client project. I leveraged existing features and technology to achieve results in a unique way. Another way to put it: I used technical knowledge to overcome a problem, creatively. Some other examples of creative solutions include:

1) Using an existing CSS feature to deliver a better or unique user experience. When applying animations and effects, the possibilities seem limitless.

2) A doctor prescribing a drug, off label, to treat a problem for which it wasn’t originally intended.

3) A trained athlete combining existing techniques into a unique style.

Although creative, these examples aren’t innovative. Innovation creates something new and moves the world forward. It creates new products, new industries, and new markets. It takes existing concepts and rearranges them to fit a unique pattern.

An outlet for my design creativity is the featured images used for each of my blog posts. Take a minute to scroll through them on my blog’s homepage. I usually take existing screenshots relevant to a piece’s subject matter, and juxtapose them against a desktop background. Sometimes, I create collages from random camera photos saved from old phones too.


Innovation changes the space in which you’re working. In the next decade I will focus on that kind of growth, and expand past client-specific work. As a broad stroke, this means building digital products. Specifically, I’ll be taking the opportunity to solve problems in certain areas. Luckily, there are many exciting problems that need solving.

Innovative solutions require energy – and here are some places I’d like to spend mine.

1) Digital accessibility, and solving technology problems for people with disabilities. This will include software, as well as physical products. I’d like to explore how IOT, wearables, and augmented/virtual reality can be leveraged.

2) Privacy. This issue also seems to include homelessness, the justice system, and personal identity.

3) Business and marketing. These solutions are important, because I can re-use them as tools in other ventures. They can be leveraged to solve other important problems.

Working with Designers (as a programmer)

Receiving designs that don’t scale. Not having explicit designs for CSS break-points. Working with Figma. Using your best judgment as a front-end engineer.

* This post, like all of my blog entries, is a work-in-progress.